**LilyPad Challenge: Electrifying Fabric**

**Papertronics Challenges: Circuit Stumpers**

**Challenges for Students and Teachers**

Circuitry is often something that is connected directly to science – it’s in the science curriculum, and we know that many science concepts lead to the understanding of circuitry and how circuits work. Math, however, is not often associated with circuitry – and we’re changing that! Click on one of the following activities to get started!

**Interactive Patterning
Bringing to Life Growing Patterns
Coding Puzzles and Number Patterns**

** Interactive Patterning**

Materials you need:

- sheet of paper, folded in half
- colour markers
- conductive tape
- 3-5 LEDs
- 3V cell battery
- butterfly clip

Fold the sheet of paper in half, like a card.

On the front, colour a short repeating pattern.

Inside, build a parallel circuit to light up one part of the pattern.

For example, for the pattern above, the circuit would look as shown below.

**Note:** Why not use a series circuit, which is easier to build? LEDs create resistance. If you string them in a series, the resistance adds up to stop the current from flowing to all the LEDs.

For additional patterning activities with coding, head over to: Solve CODING PUZZLES with repeating patterns

**Bringing to Life Growing Patterns**

Materials you need:

- sheet of paper, folded in half
- colour markers
- conductive tape
- 3-5 LEDs
- 3V cell battery
- butterfly clip
- Pre-made graphical representation of the growth seen in Anno’s Seeds

At this point, you should have created some kind of graphical representation of the growth that occurs in Anno’s seeds. If possible, fold that page in half, with the graph on the front – if not possible, re-create the graph on the front of a folded page of paper.

Inside, build a parallel circuit strategically placed, so that you can light up specific parts of the graph (ie. the seeds that are eaten).

For awesome coding environments to demonstrate growing patterns, head over to: Solve CODING PUZZLES with growing patterns

**Coding Puzzles and Number Patterns**

Materials you need:

- sheet of paper, folded in half
- colour markers
- conductive tape
- LED
- 3V cell battery
- butterfly clip

Use the ideas displayed in the example below to build a circuit that illuminates the intersection in a Venn diagram of two overlapping sets of your choice.

The Venn diagram below illustrates:

**Factors of 5 AND Factors of 10 = Common Factors**

**Quadrilaterals AND Regular Polygons = ****Regular Quadrilaterals (also known as Squares)**

Using copper tape, batteries, LED lights and butterfly clips, we can demonstrate the AND command that is used in math, as well as coding.

For more coding and number patterns, head to: Solve CODING PUZZLES with number patterns

**Did you know?**

Venn diagrams and series circuits connect to mathematics, science and digital electronics that allow us to code.

Mathematics – Boolean algebra

Sets (like “all the quadrilaterals” or all the “regular polygons”) and their relationships are an important part of math.

Let’s look at sets A and B:

A = {1, 2, 3, 4} B = {3, 4, 5, 6}

Here are 3 examples of relationships between sets:

- A
**AND**B = {3, 4} - A
**OR**B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} - A
**NOT**B = {1, 2}

All of this is part of the branch of mathematics called Boolean Algebra.

Science – Electricity & circuits

In science, you study electricity and circuits.

In a **SERIES** circuit, both the first switch **AND** second switch must be closed for the LED to light up. In a **PARALLEL** circuit, either the first switch **OR** the second switch must be closed for the LED to light up.

**Digital electronics** – Logic gates

What makes smartphones smart?

Smartphones are smart because they can be coded to make decisions.

Let’s consider the built-in alarm clock. Suppose you set it for 7 AM. In order for the alarm to sound: the clock must be set for 7 AM **AND** the time must be 7 AM. This decision is made using an **AND logic gate**, illustrated below.

Boolean Algebra, circuits, and logic gates are different forms of similar ideas, which allow our devices to be coded to make decisions.